Posts tagged with "oracle_enhanced"

August 09, 2011

Oracle enhanced adapter 1.4.0 and Readme Driven Development

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

I just released Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.4.0 and here is the summary of main changes.

Rails 3.1 support

Oracle enhanced adapter GitHub version was working with Rails 3.1 betas and release candidate versions already but it was not explicitly stated anywhere that you should use git version with Rails 3.1. Therefore I am releasing new version 1.4.0 which is passing all tests with latest Rails 3.1 release candidate. As I wrote before main changes in ActiveRecord 3.1 are that it using prepared statement cache and using bind variables in many statements (currently in select by primary key, insert and delete statements) which result in better performance and better database resources usage.

To follow up how Oracle enhanced adapter is working with different Rails versions and different Ruby implementations I have set up Continuous Integration server to run tests on different version combinations. At the moment of writing everything was green :)

Other bug fixes and improvements

Main fixes and improvements in this version are the following:

  • On JRuby I switched from using old ojdbc14.jar JDBC driver to latest ojdbc6.jar (on Java 6) or ojdbc5.jar (on Java 5). And JDBC driver can be located in Rails application ./lib directory as well.

  • RAW data type is now supported (which is quite often used in legacy databases instead of nowadays recommended CLOB and BLOB types).

  • rake db:create and rake db:drop can be used to create development or test database schemas.

  • Support for virtual columns in improved (only working on Oracle 11g database).

  • Default table, index, CLOB and BLOB tablespaces can be specified (if your DBA is insisting on putting everything in separate tablespaces :)).

  • Several improvements for context index additional options and definition dump.

See list of all enhancements and bug fixes

If you want to have a new feature in Oracle enhanced adapter then the best way is to implement it by yourself and write some tests for that feature and send me pull request. In this release I have included commits from five new contributors and two existing contributors - so it is not so hard to start contributing to open source!

Readme Driven Development

One of the worst parts of Oracle enhanced adapter so far was that for new users it was quite hard to understand how to start to use it and what are all additional features that Oracle enhanced adapter provides. There were many blog posts in this blog, there were wiki pages, there were posts in discussion forums. But all this information was in different places and some posts were already outdated and therefore for new users it was hard to understand how to start.

After reading about Readme Driven Development and watching presentation about Readme Driven Development I knew that README of Oracle enhanced adapter was quite bad and should be improved (in my other projects I am already trying to be better but this was my first one :)).

Therefore I have written new README of Oracle enhanced adapter which includes main installation, configuration, usage and troubleshooting tasks which previously was scattered across different other posts. If you find that some important information is missing or outdated then please submit patches to README as well so that it stays up to date and with relevant information.

If you have any questions please use discussion group or report issues at GitHub or post comments here.

June 03, 2011

Recent conference presentations

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: conference, ruby, oracle_enhanced, mondrian-olap, javascript, coffeescriptShow comments

Recently I has not posted any new posts as I was busy with some new projects as well as during May attended several conferences and in some I also did presentations. Here I will post slides from these conferences. If you are interested in some of these topics then ask me to come to you as well and talk about these topics :)

Agile Riga Day

In March I spoke at Agile Riga Day (organized by Agile Latvia) about my experience and recommendations how to adopt Agile practices in iterative style.

How to Adopt Agile at Your Organization


In May I travelled to RailsConf in Baltimore and I hosted traditional Rails on Oracle Birds of a Feather session there and gave overview about how to contribute to ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter.

Rails on Oracle 2011


Then I participated in our local Theory and Practice of Software Testing conference and there I promoted use of Ruby as test scripting language.

Why Every Tester Should Learn Ruby


And lastly I participated in Euruko and RailsWayCon conferences in Berlin. In RailsWayCon my first presentation was about multidimensional data analysis with JRuby and mondrian-olap gem. I also published mondrian-olap demo project that I used during presentation.

RailsWayCon: Multidimensional Data Analysis with JRuby

And second RailsWayCon presentation was about CoffeeScript, Backbone.js and Jasmine that I am recently using to build rich web user interfaces. This was quite successful presentation as there were many questions and also many participants were encouraged to try out CoffeeScript and Backbone.js. I also published my demo application that I used for code samples during presentation.

Rails-like JavaScript Using CoffeeScript, Backbone.js and Jasmine

Next conferences

Now I will rest for some time from conferences :) But then I will attend FrozenRails in Helsinki and I will present at Oracle OpenWorld in San Francisco. See you there!

January 05, 2011

Oracle enhanced adapter 1.3.2 is released

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

I just released Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.3.2 with latest bug fixes and enhancements.

Bug fixes and improvements

Main fixes and improvements are the following:

  • Previous version 1.3.1 was checking if environment variable TNS_NAME is set and only then used provided database connection parameter (in database.yml) as TNS connection alias and otherwise defaulted to connection to localhost with provided database name. This was causing issues in many setups.
    Therefore now it is simplified that if you provide only database parameter in database.yml then it by default will be used as TNS connection alias or TNS connection string.
  • Numeric username and/or password in database.yml will be automatically converted to string (previously you needed to quote them using "...").
  • Database connection pool and JNDI connections are now better supported for JRuby on Tomcat and JBoss application servers.
  • NLS connection parameters are supported via environment variables or in database.yml. For example, if you need to have NLS_DATE_FORMAT in your database session to be DD-MON-YYYY then either you specify nls_date_format: DD-MON-YYYY in database.yml for particular database connection or set ENV['NLS_DATE_FORMAT'] = 'DD-MON-YYYY' in e.g. config/initializers/oracle.rb. You can see the list of all NLS parameters in source code.
    It might be necessary to specify these NLS session parameters only if you work with some existing legacy database which has, for example, some stored procedures that require particular NLS settings. If this is new database just for Rails purposes then there is no need to change any settings.
  • If you have defined foreign key constraints then they are now correctly dumped in db/schema.rb after all table definitions. Previously they were dumped after corresponding table which sometimes caused that schema could not be recreated from schema dump because it tried to load constraint which referenced table which has not yet been defined.
  • If you are using NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 data types then now NCHAR and NVARCHAR2 type values are correctly quoted with N'...' in SQL statements.

Upcoming changes in Rails 3.1

Meanwhile Oracle enhanced adapter is updated to pass all ActiveRecord unit tests in Rails development master branch and also updated according to Arel changes. Arel library is responsible for all SQL statement generation in Rails 3.0.

Rails 3.0.3 is using Arel version 2.0 which was full rewrite of Arel 1.0 (that was used initial Rails 3.0 version) and as a result of this rewrite it is much faster and now Rails 3.0.3 ActiveRecord is already little bit faster than in ActiveRecord in Rails 2.3.

There are several improvements in Rails master branch which are planned for Rails 3.1 version which are already supported by Oracle enhanced adapter. One improvement is that ActiveRecord will support prepared statement caching (initially for standard simple queries like find by primary key) which will reduce SQL statement parsing time and memory usage (and probably Oracle DBAs will complain less about Rails dynamic SQL generation :)). The other improvement is that ActiveRecord will correctly load included associations with more than 1000 records (which currently fails with ORA-01795 error).

But I will write more about these improvements sometime later when Rails 3.1 will be released :)


As always you can install Oracle enhanced adapter on any Ruby platform (Ruby 1.8.7 or Ruby 1.9.2 or JRuby 1.5) with

gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

If you have any questions please use discussion group or report issues at GitHub or post comments here. And the best way how to contribute is to fix some issue or create some enhancement and send me pull request at GitHub.

September 09, 2010

Oracle enhanced adapter 1.3.1 and how to use it with Rails 3

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

Rails 3.0 was released recently and therefore I am releasing new Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.3.1 which is tested and updated against latest Rails 3.0.0 version. You can read about main changes in oracle_enhanced adapter for Rails 3 support in my previous blog post. Latest version 1.3.1 mainly contains several bug fixes (which you can find in change log as well as in detailed commit list) as well as several new features that I will describe here.

Usage with Rails 3

I have improved a little bit configuration and loading of oracle_enhanced adapter in Rails 3 and here are the initial steps that you should do to use oracle_enhanced adapter in Rails 3 application. I assume that you are using latest Rails 3.0.0 version as well as latest Bundler 1.0.0 version.

At first you need to include necessary gems in Gemfile of your application:

gem 'ruby-oci8', '~> 2.0.4'
gem 'activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter', '~> 1.3.1'

It is recommended to use ~> version (requires specified version or later minor version update where only the last digit of version has changed) or = version in your Gemfile and not >= (which might include major version changes). In this way you ensure that your application will not break when major API changes will happen in gem that you are using.

If you want to run your application both on MRI and JRuby then you can specify

platforms :ruby do
  gem 'ruby-oci8', '~> 2.0.4'

which will load ruby-oci8 gem only when using MRI 1.8 or 1.9 and not when using JRuby.

If you would like to use the latest development version of oracle_enhanced then change Gemfile to:

gem 'activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter', '~> 1.3.1', :git => 'git://github.com/rsim/oracle-enhanced.git'

If you will use also ruby-plsql gem in your application then include as well (and specify version as needed)

gem "ruby-plsql", "~> 0.4.3"

After these changes in Gemfile run bundle update to install necessary gems and generate corresponding Gemfile.lock.

If you want to use all default oracle_enhanced settings then you need just to specify your database connection in database.yml, for example, something like this:

  adapter: oracle_enhanced
  database: orcl
  username: user
  password: secret

and you can start to use Rails with Oracle database. If you would like to change some oracle_enhanced adapter settings then it is recommended to create initializer file config/initializers/oracle.rb where you can specify necessary defaults, for example:

ActiveSupport.on_load(:active_record) do
  ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.class_eval do
    self.emulate_integers_by_column_name = true
    self.emulate_dates_by_column_name = true
    self.emulate_booleans_from_strings = true

    # to ensure that sequences will start from 1 and without gaps
    self.default_sequence_start_value = "1 NOCACHE INCREMENT BY 1"

    # other settings ...

It is important to use ActiveSupport.on_load(:active_record) as Rails 3 does lazy loading of all components and we need to ensure that oracle_enhanced adapter defaults are set only after ActiveRecord is loaded.

You can take a look at sample Rails 3 application on Oracle to see sample configuration files that I mentioned here.

Database connection options

There are several ways how to specify database connection in database.yml file.

Using tnsnames.ora file with TNS aliases

If you are using tnsnames.ora file with TNS names and connection descriptions then you need to set TNS_ADMIN environment variable to point to directory where tnsnames.ora file is located. If oracle_enhanced adapter will detect that ENV[‘TNS_ADMIN’] is not empty then it will try to use TNS name in :database parameter to connect to database. So in this case in database.yml you need to specify:

  adapter: oracle_enhanced
  database: connection_name_from_tnsnames
  username: user
  password: secret

Connection using tnsnames is supported both for MRI with ruby-oci8 as well as for JRuby with JDBC. Use this option if you would not like to hardcode database server address, port and database name in your application and want to specify separately in tnsnames.ora file.

Using host, port and database option

If you do not want to create separate tnsnames.ora file and want to specify database server, port and database name directly in application, then you can specify these options separately in database.yml file, for example:

  adapter: oracle_enhanced
  host: localhost
  port: 1521
  database: orcl
  username: user
  password: secret

port default value is 1521 and can be omitted. It is also possible to specify host, port and database name is Oracle specific format in database option:

  adapter: oracle_enhanced
  database: //localhost:1521/orcl
  username: user
  password: secret

It is also possible to specify TNS connection description directly in database.yml file (if you do not want to create separate tnsnames.ora file), for example:

  adapter: oracle_enhanced
  username: user
  password: secret

Using JNDI connections in JRuby

If you deploy your JRuby application in Java application server that supports JNDI connections then it is possible to specify also JNDI connection in database.yml file, for example:

  adapter: oracle_enhanced
  jndi: "jdbc/jndi_connection_name"

I am not using this connection option but some oracle_enhanced users are using it.

Contributing to oracle_enhanced adapter

If you experience any issues with oracle_enhanced adapter then please report issues at GitHub issue tracker or discuss them at oracle_enhanced discussion group.

But even better if you want some new feature in oracle_enhanced adapter then fork oracle_enhanced git repository and make your changes and send me pull requests for review.

For all changes please add also RSpec tests as well as verify if all existing tests are passing after your changes. I added description how to set up environment for running tests – please let me know if something is missing there.

Big thanks to all contributors who have submitted patches so far :)

June 21, 2010

Oracle enhanced adapter 1.3.0 is Rails 3 compatible

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

Rails 3 is in final finishing stage (currently in beta4) and therefore I released new Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.3.0 which I was working on during last months.

Rails 3 compatibility

The major enhancement is that Oracle enhanced adapter is now compatible with Rails 3. To achieve that I also developed Oracle SQL compiler for Arel gem which is used now by ActiveRecord to generate SQL statements. When using Oracle enhanced adapter with Rails 3 you will notice several major changes:

  • Table and column names are always quoted and in uppercase to avoid the need for checking Oracle reserved words.
    E.g. now Post.all will generate query
  • Better support for limit and offset options (when possible just ROWNUM condition in WHERE clause is used without using subqueries).
    E.g. Post.first (or Post.limit(1)) will generate query
    but Post.limit(1).offset(1) will generate
    select * from (select raw_sql_.*, rownum raw_rnum_
      from (SELECT "EMPLOYEES".* FROM "EMPLOYEES") raw_sql_ where rownum <= 2)
      where raw_rnum_ > 1

When using Oracle enhanced adapter with current version of Rails 3 and Arel it is necessary to turn on table and column caching option in all environments as otherwise Arel gem will cause very many SQL queries on data dictionary tables on each request. To achieve that you need to include in some initializer file:

ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.cache_columns = true

I have published simple Rails 3 demo application using Rails 3 and Oracle enhanced adapter. You can take a look at Gemfile and Oracle initializer file to see examples how to configure Oracle enhanced adapter with Rails 3.

Rails 2.3 compatibility

Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.3.0 is still compatible with Rails 2.3 (I am testing it against Rails 2.3.5 and 2.3.8) and it is recommended to upgrade if you are on Rails 2.3 and plan to upgrade to Rails 3.0 later. But if you are still on Rails 2.2 or earlier then there might be issues with Oracle enhanced adapter 1.3.0 as I am using some Rails methods which appeared just in Rails 2.3 – so in this case it might be safer to stay on previous Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.2.4 until you upgrade to latest Rails version.

Oracle CONTEXT index support

Every edition of Oracle database includes Oracle Text option for free which provides different full text indexing capabilities. Therefore in Oracle database case you don’t need external full text indexing and searching engines which can simplify your application deployment architecture.

The most commonly used index type is CONTEXT index which can be used for efficient full text search. Most of CONTEXT index creation examples show how to create simple full text index on one table and one column. But if you want to create more complex full text indexes on multiple columns or even on multiple tables and columns then you need to write your custom procedures and custom index refreshing logic.

Therefore to make creation of more complex full text indexes easier I have created additional add_context_index and remove_context_index methods that can be used in migrations and which creates additional stored procedures and triggers when needed in standardized way.

This is how you can create simple single column index:

add_context_index :posts, :title

And you can perform search using this index with

Post.contains(:title, 'word')

This is how you create index on several columns (which will generate additional stored procedure for providing XML document with specified columns to indexer):

add_context_index :posts, [:title, :body]

And you can search either in all columns or specify in which column you want to search (as first argument you need to specify first column name as this is the column which is referenced during index creation):

Post.contains(:title, 'word')
Post.contains(:title, 'word within title')
Post.contains(:title, 'word within body')

See Oracle Text documentation for syntax that you can use in CONTAINS function in SELECT WHERE clause.

You can also specify some dummy main column name when creating multiple column index as well as specify to update index automatically after each commit (as otherwise you need to synchronize index manually or schedule periodic update):

add_context_index :posts, [:title, :body], :index_column => :all_text,
  :sync => 'ON COMMIT'
Post.contains(:all_text, 'word')

Or you can specify that index should be updated when specified columns are updated (e.g. in ActiveRecord you can specify to trigger index update when created_at or updated_at columns are updated). Otherwise index is updated only when main index column is updated.

add_context_index :posts, [:title, :body], :index_column => :all_text,
  :sync => 'ON COMMIT', :index_column_trigger_on => [:created_at, :updated_at]

And you can even create index on multiple tables by providing SELECT statements which should be used to fetch necessary columns from related tables:

add_context_index :posts,
  [:title, :body,
  # specify aliases always with AS keyword
  "SELECT comments.author AS comment_author, comments.body AS comment_body FROM comments WHERE comments.post_id = :id"
  :name => 'post_and_comments_index',
  :index_column => :all_text,
  :index_column_trigger_on => [:updated_at, :comments_count],
  :sync => 'ON COMMIT'
# search in any table columns
Post.contains(:all_text, 'word')
# search in specified column
Post.contains(:all_text, "aaa within title")
Post.contains(:all_text, "bbb within comment_author")

In terms of Oracle Text performance in most cases it is good enough (typical response in not more that hundreds of milliseconds). But from my experience it is still slower compared to dedicated full text search engines like Sphinx. So in case if Oracle Text performance is not good enough (if you need all search operations return in tens of milliseconds) then you probably need to evaluate dedicated search engines like Sphinx or Lucene.

Other changes

Please see change history file or commit list to see more detailed list of changes in this version.


As always you can install Oracle enhanced adapter on any Ruby platform (Ruby 1.8.7 or Ruby 1.9.1/1.9.2 or JRuby) with

gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

If you have any questions please use discussion group or report issues at GitHub or post comments here.

February 24, 2010

ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.2.4

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

I have released maintenance version of ActiveRecrod Oracle enhanced adapter with some bug fixes and some new features. This is the last maintenance version for Rails 2, I have already done majority of work to support also Rails 3 in next adapter versions, but that deserves another post when it will be ready :).

Detailed changes can be found in change history file and commit log, here I will point out the main changes.

Schema and structure dump

There are several improvements in schema (rake db:schema:dump) and structure dump (rake db:structure:dump) tasks. Now structure dump is improved to contain all schema objects in SQL statements format.

Also db:test:purge rake task (which is run before recreating test schema when running rake test or rake spec) is changed that it will delete all schema objects from test schema – including also views, packages, procedures and functions which are not recreated from schema.rb. So if you need to have additional database objects in your schema besides tables, indexes, sequences and synonyms (which are dumped in schema.rb) then you need to recreate them after standard rake task db:schema:load is run. Here is example how to execute any additional tasks after db:schema:load (include this in some .rake file in lib/tasks directory):

namespace :db do
  namespace :schema do
    task :load do
    task :create_other_objects do
      # include code here which creates necessary views, packages etc.

Additional options for schema definition methods

You can pass :temporary => true option for create_table method to create temporary tables.

You can use :tablespace => "tablespace name" option for add_index method to create index in non-default Oracle tablespace that is specified for user (e.g. if it is requested by your DBA for performance reasons). You can also define function based indexes using add_index and they will be correctly dumped in schema.rb.

Savepoints and nested ActiveRecord transactions

oracle_enhanced adapter now supports ActiveRecord nested transactions using database savepoints.

ruby-oci8 version

As I am using and testing oracle_enhanced adapter just with ruby-oci8 2.0.3 then I have made this as precondition (if you use MRI 1.8 or 1.9). So if you haven’t yet upgraded to latest ruby-oci8 version then please do so before upgrading to oracle_enhanced 1.2.4.

JNDI connection support

If you are using oracle_enhanced with JRuby then now you can also use JNDI database connections – please see this issue with comments to see some examples.


As always you can install Oracle enhanced adapter on any Ruby platform (Ruby 1.8.6 / 1.8.7 or Ruby 1.9.1 or JRuby) with

gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

If you have any questions please use discussion group or post comments here.

September 28, 2009

New features in ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.2.2

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

During the last months many new features have been implemented for ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter which are now included in Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.2.2. You can find full list in change history file, here I will tell about the main ones.


Now Oracle enhanced adapter has improved RDoc documentation for all public methods. So you can go to RDoc documentation of installed gem or go and view published documentation on-line.

Schema definition

There are many new features in schema definition methods that you can use in migration files:

  • When you use add_index then ActiveRecord is automatically generating index name using format index_table_name_on_column1_and_column2_… which previously could cause Oracle errors as Oracle identifiers should be up to 30 characters long. Now default index names are automatically shortened down to 30 or less characters (of course you can always use also :name option to specify shortened version by yourself).
  • Now adapter is ignoring :limit option for :text and :binary columns (as in Oracle you cannot specify limit for CLOB and BLOB data types). Previously it could cause errors if you tried to migrate Rails application from e.g. MySQL where :text and :binary columns could have :limit in schema definition.
  • If you define :string column with* :limit option then it will define VARCHAR2 column with size in characters and not in bytes (this makes difference if you use UTF-8 with language where one character might be stored as several bytes). This is expected behavior from ActiveRecord that you define maximum string size in UTF-8 characters.
  • Now you can use add_foreign_key and remove_foreign_key to define foreign key constraints in migrations (see RDoc documentation for details). Syntax and some implemenatation for foreign key definition was taken from foreigner Rails plugin as well as some ideas taken from active_record_oracle_extensions plugin.
  • add_foreign_key definitions will be also extracted in schema.rb by rake db:schema:dump task. Therefore they will be also present in test database when you will recreate it from schema.rb file.
  • Foreign keys are also safe for loading of fixtures (in case you are still using them instead of factories :)). disable_referential_integrity method is implemented for Oracle enhanced adapter which is called by ActiveRecord before loading fixtures and which disables all currently active foreign key constraints during loading of fixtures.
  • You can use add_synonym and remove_synonym to define database synonyms to other tables, views or sequences. add_synonym definitions will also be extracted in schema.rb file.
  • It is possible to create tables with primary key trigger. There will be no difference in terms how you would create new records in such table using ActiveRecord but in case you have also need to do direct INSERTs into the table then it will be easier as you can omit primary key from INSERT statement and primary key trigger will populate it automatically from corresponding sequence.
  • ActiveRecord schema dumper is patched to work correctly when default table prefixes or suffixes are used – they are now removed from schema.rb dump to avoid duplicate prefixes and suffixes when recreating schema from schema.rb.

Legacy schema support

Some features which can support “weird” legacy database schemas:

  • If you are using ActiveRecord with legacy schema which have tables with triggers that populate primary key triggers (and not using default Rails and Oracle enhanced adapter conventions) then you can use set_sequence_name :autogenerated in class definition to tell adapter to omit primary key value from INSERTs.
  • You can use ActiveRecord also with tables that you can access over database link. To do that you need to define local synonym to remote table (and also remote sequence if you want to insert records as well) and then use local synonym in set_table_name in class definition. Previously adapter could not get remote table columns, now it will get table columns also over database link.
    But still you cannot specify remote table (like “table_name@db_link”) directly in set_table_name as table_name will be used as column prefix in generated SQL statements where “@db_link” will not be valid syntax.
    And when you define local synonyms then please use the new add_synonym feature :)

Connection options

  • cursor_sharing option default value is changed from “similar” to “force” – please read explanation in discussion group post what it is and why the new default value is recommended choice.
  • When using JRuby and JDBC you can set TNS_ADMIN environment variable to tnsnames.ora directory and then use TNS database alias in database.yml file (specify just database: option and remove host: option). This might be useful for more complex TNS connection definitions, e.g. connection to load balanced Oracle RAC.
  • Adapter will not raise error if it cannot locate ojdbc14.jar* file. So either put it in $JRUBY_HOME/lib or ensure that it will be loaded by application server. Would love to hear feedback from people who are using this adapter with JRuby to find out if this behaves well now :)


  • Now you can get PL/SQL debugging information into your ActiveRecord log file. Use dbms_output.put_line in your PL/SQL procedures and functions (that are called from ActiveRecord models) and in your ActiveRecord model use connection.enable_dbms_output and connection.disable_dbms_output around your database calls to get dbms_output logging information into ActiveRecord log file. But please use it just in development environment with debug log level as in production it would add too much overhead for each database call. And this feature also requires that you install ruby-plsql gem.

As you see this probably is the largest “point” release that I have had :) Thanks also to other contributors which patches were included in this release.

As always you can install Oracle enhanced adapter on any Ruby platform (Ruby 1.8.6 / 1.8.7 or Ruby 1.9.1 or JRuby) with

gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

If you have any questions please use discussion group or post comments here.

March 23, 2009

ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter also on JRuby and Ruby 1.9

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

So far if you wanted to use Ruby on Rails on Oracle database you needed to use different adapters depending on the Ruby platform that you wanted to use. If you used original MRI (Matz Ruby interpreter) 1.8.6 then hopefully you were using Oracle enhanced adapter. But if you wanted to use JRuby then you needed to use JDBC adapter that is maintained by JRuby team (and which sometimes might work differently than Oracle enhanced adapter). And if you wanted to use new Ruby 1.9.1 then you were out of luck as no adapter supported it.

Therefore I wanted to announce great news that ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter 1.2.0 is released and it supports all three major Ruby platforms!

  • Use Oracle enhanced adapter on MRI 1.8.6 with ruby-oci8 1.0.x library or gem
  • Use Oracle enhanced adapter on JRuby (so far tested with 1.1.6) with JDBC Oracle driver
  • Use Oracle enhanced adapter on Ruby/YARV 1.9.1 with ruby-oci8 2.0 library or gem

This provides you with much more flexibility to develop on one Ruby platform but deploy on another and on all three platforms you can use the same additional functionality that Oracle enhanced adapter provides on top of standard ActiveRecord functionality.

And during testing of Oracle enhanced adapter on all platforms additional milestone was achieved – Oracle enhanced adapter passes 100% ActiveRecord unit tests! But to be honest I need to tell that I needed to patch quite many unit tests for Oracle specifics as not all SQL that runs on MySQL is also valid on Oracle. I published my patched branch of ActiveRecord unit tests at my GitHub fork of Rails – you can clone the repository and verify by yourself.

So please try out new version of Oracle enhanced adapter on any Ruby platform:

gem install activerecord-oracle_enahnced-adapter

If you have any questions please use discussion group or post comments here. In nearest future I will also add more instructions how to install Oracle enhanced adapter on JRuby and Ruby 1.9.1 at GitHub wiki page.

January 03, 2009

More information sources on ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

I’m glad to see that there are many users of ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter and therefore comments in this blog is not anymore the best way how to communicate with Oracle enhanced adapter users. Therefore I created several other information exchange places which I hope will be more effective.

The latest addition is wiki pages on GitHub where I put usage description and examples as well as some troubleshooting hints that previously were scattered in README file and different blog posts. This is the first place where to look for information about Oracle enhanced adapter. And if you are GitHub user then you can correct mistakes or add additional content also by yourself.

If you have some question or you would like to discuss some feature then you can use Google discussion group. I will use this discussion group also for new release announcements as well so subscribe to it if you would like to get Oracle enhanced adapter news.

If you would like to report some bug or new feature (and patch would be greatly appreciated) then please use Lighthouse issue tracker.

And source code of Oracle enhanced adapter is still located in Github repository. If you are GitHub user then you can watch it or even fork it and experiment with some new features.

And BTW I just released Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.1.9 with some new features and it has been also tested with latest Rails 2.2 release.

September 06, 2008

Oracle enhanced adapter presentation at RejectConf in Berlin

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, conference, oracleShow comments

I just returned from RailsConf Europe in Berlin and attended a lot of good Ruby and Rails related sessions.

I also tried to submit there my session proposal about using Rails with Oracle but as there were too many good proposals and as my topic was with too narrow topic then it was not accepted. Therefore I used opportunity to give 5 minutes presentation about Oracle enhanced adapter in RejectConf where anybody could present anything.

Here are my slides that I used in this presentation. And at least one participant was interested in this topics as he uses Rails and Oracle and did not know about my adapter.

My next public appearance is planned at Oracle OpenWorld unconference where I have recerved time slot on Thursday, September 25th at 10am. Please come there if you are attending Oracle OpenWorld and are interested in how to use Ruby on Rails with your legacy Oracle databases.

July 27, 2008

Latest additions to Oracle enhanced adapter

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

Short information about latest enhancements in ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter:

  • Oracle enhanced adapter is now compatible with composite_primary_keys gem which is quite useful if you are working with legacy databases.
  • Adapter now is also working correctly with Rails 2.1 partial_updates enabled. Previously I mentioned that you needed to disable partial_updates when using CLOB/BLOB columns. Now the issue is found and fixed and partial_updates are working with CLOB/BLOB columns.
  • Support for other date and time formats when assigning string to :date or :datetime column. For example, if you would like to assign strings with format dd.mm.yyyy to date and datetime columns then add the following configuration options:
    ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.string_to_date_format = "%d.%m.%Y"
    ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.string_to_time_format = "%d.%m.%Y %H:%M:%S"

To get the new release of Oracle enhanced adapter do as always:

sudo gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

July 10, 2008

Custom ActiveRecord create, add and delete methods for legacy databases

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracle, ruby-plsqlShow comments

In some Ruby on Rails projects I am putting ActiveRecord interface on top of existing legacy databases. It is quite easy to specify legacy table names and primary keys in ActiveRecord models so that ActiveRecord would generate correct SQL SELECT statements to read data from legacy databases.

But it is more difficult to insert, update and delete in legacy databases using ActiveRecord. When using Oracle legacy databases then quite often they have exposed PL/SQL APIs for writing to tables and you are typically not allowed to directly modify tables with INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE statements.

Therefore I created support for custom create, update and delete methods in the version 1.1.3 of ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter which uses also my ruby-plsql gem.

Let’s look at the following example. Assume that we have the following table:

CREATE TABLE test_employees (
  employee_id   NUMBER(6,0),
  first_name    VARCHAR2(20),
  last_name     VARCHAR2(25),
  hire_date     DATE,
  salary        NUMBER(8,2),
  version       NUMBER(15,0),
  create_time   DATE,
  update_time   DATE

And we have the following PL/SQL API package that should be used to write to this table:

  PROCEDURE create_employee(
      p_first_name    VARCHAR2,
      p_last_name     VARCHAR2,
      p_hire_date     DATE,
      p_salary        NUMBER,
      p_employee_id   OUT NUMBER);
  PROCEDURE update_employee(
      p_employee_id   NUMBER,
      p_first_name    VARCHAR2,
      p_last_name     VARCHAR2,
      p_hire_date     DATE,
      p_salary        NUMBER);
  PROCEDURE delete_employee(
      p_employee_id   NUMBER);

Then we define ActiveRecord model in the following way:

class TestEmployee < ActiveRecord::Base
  set_primary_key :employee_id
  # should return ID of new record
  set_create_method do
      :p_first_name => first_name,
      :p_last_name => last_name,
      :p_hire_date => hire_date,
      :p_salary => salary,
      :p_employee_id => nil
  # return value is ignored
  set_update_method do
      :p_employee_id => id,
      :p_first_name => first_name,
      :p_last_name => last_name,
      :p_hire_date => hire_date,
      :p_salary => salary
  # return value is ignored
  set_delete_method do
      :p_employee_id => id

And as a result we can use this model in the same way as other ActiveRecord models:

@employee = TestEmployee.create(
  :first_name => "First",
  :last_name => "Last",
  :hire_date => Date.today
@employee.first_name = "Second"

And all writing to the database will be done using defined API procedures.

Currently this functionality is embedded into Oracle enhanced adapter but if somebody needs it also for other databases this functionality could easily be extraced from the adapter.

To get the new release of Oracle enhanced adapter just do:

sudo gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

Source code of Oracle enhanced adapter is located at GitHub and you can submit bug reports and enhancement requests in Lighthouse.

June 28, 2008

ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter version 1.1.1 released

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

I just released new version of ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter which includes several new enhancements which could be useful if you use ActiveRecord with legacy Oracle databases:

  • Added ignore_table_columns option for class definitions
    You can specify which table (or view) columns should be ignored by ActiveRecord – these could be either columns which you do not need in Rails application or which have currently unsupported data types. For example:
    class Employee < ActiveRecord::Base
      ignore_table_columns  :phone_number, :hire_date
  • Added support for TIMESTAMP columns
    You can create tables with :timestamp data type which will create TIMESTAMP columns and you can access values from TIMESTAMP columns. Unfortunately due to current ruby-oci8 limitations when you will retrieve TIMESTAMP values it will be without fractional seconds (but if you pass Time value with fractional seconds then it will be stored in database).
  • NLS_DATE_FORMAT and NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT independent DATE and TIMESTAMP columns support
    By default Oracle adapter (and enhanced adapter as well) changes NLS_DATE_FORMAT and NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT to ‘DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS’. But if you are working with some legacy database which requires different NLS date settings then now you can change these settings to different ones. You can put in some initialization file some other NLS settings, e.g.:
    ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute %q{alter session set nls_date_format = 'DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS'}
    ActiveRecord::Base.connection.execute %q{alter session set nls_timestamp_format = 'DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS'}

    and ActiveRecord will continue to work correctly with date values.

Also one Rails 2.1 related issue was solved. Previously Oracle enhanced adapter always added after_save callback to ActiveRecord session store which stores BLOB data in the database (as in Rails 2.0 there was issue that this callback was not added). Now in Rails 2.1 this callback is added by ActiveRecord therefore Oracle enhanced adapter checks if this callback is already added or not. So now this should work correctly both in Rails 2.0 and Rails 2.1.

Also I have noticed that in some Rails 2.1 applications Oracle adapter is failing on ActiveRecord session store updates when partial updates are enabled. If you also have such issue then put this into your initialization file which will work as workaround until I will find what is causing this problem:

CGI::Session::ActiveRecordStore::Session.partial_updates = false

To get the new release just do:

sudo gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

Source code of Oracle enhanced adapter is located at GitHub. And you can submit bug reports and enhancement requests in Lighthouse. There you can see also some identified enhancements – please add comments to them if you also would like to have them. Then it will be easier for me to select what to include in next version of adapter.

May 13, 2008

ActiveRecord Oracle enhanced adapter

Posted by Raimonds Simanovskis • Tags: oracle_enhanced, ruby, rails, oracleShow comments

In all Ruby on Rails on Oracle projects where I am using original ActiveRecord Oracle adapter I always create some “monkey patches” of Oracle adapter to support my needs. I have written about several of these patches in this blog (see 1, 2, 3).

As such monkey patches are not easily maintainable and reusable between projects I decided to fork existing Oracle adapter and create my own ActiveRecord Oracle “enhanced” adapter where I will add all my enhancements.

Today I released first version (1.1.0) of Oracle enhanced adapter on RubyForge as well as source code is available at GitHub.

To install Oracle enhanced adapter execute (should be available soon):

sudo gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter

To use it you need to use “oracle_enhanced” as the adapter name in database.yml configuration file instead of “oracle”. In addition I recommend to create config/initializers/oracle_enhanced.rb file where to put any adapter configuration options that you can see below.

Initial version contains the following enhancements:

  • Improved perfomance of schema dump methods when used on large data dictionaries
  • Added LOB writing callback for sessions stored in database (see previous post)
  • Added emulate_dates_by_column_name option
    Set the option below and as a result columns with DATE in their name will be emulated as Date (and not as Time which is default for DATE columns in database)
    ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.emulate_dates_by_column_name = true
  • Added emulate_integers_by_column_name option
    Set the option below and as a result number columns with ID at the end of column always will be emulated as Fixnum (useful if in legacy database column type is specified just as NUMBER without precision information which by default is mapped to BigDecimal Ruby type)
    ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.emulate_integers_by_column_name = true
  • Added emulate_booleans_from_strings option
    Set the option below and as a result CHAR, VARCHAR2 columns or VARCHAR2 columns with FLAG or YN at the end of their name will be emulated as booleans (and “Y” and “N” will be used to store true and false values). This is useful for legacy databases where Rails default convention of NUMBER for boolean values cannot be used (e.g. if you are using Oracle E-Business Suite where booleans are stored as “Y” and “N”).
    ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::OracleEnhancedAdapter.emulate_booleans_from_strings = true

If you need to override how date, integer or boolean columns are identified then you can redefine class methods is_date_column?, is_integer_column? and is_boolean_column? definitions in OracleEnhancedAdapter class.

Please comment if you find these enhancements useful in your projects and also what other Oracle adapter enhancements you need in your Ruby on Rails on Oracle projects.

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